A vegetarian diet is, by definition, a diet which is free of animal flesh, bird and fish. A vegan diet is a vegetarian diet which does not involve eating any form of animal based products. There are other forms of vegetarian diets, such as lacto-ovo, which involves eating eggs and milk, but no animal flesh.
The reasons one chooses a vegetarian or vegan diet are varied. Some choose it for a healthier lifestyle, others are concerned with eating living things, and religion is another reason as well as concern of the effects the meat industry has on the environment.
For many, the health reasons are driving forces to eliminate meat and include:
• Lower cholesterol levels
• Lower levels of saturated fats
• Lower blood pressure
• Lower risk of cancer
• Lower risk of Type 2 diabetes
A vegetarian diet can be quite healthy; however, the vegetarian needs to be aware that his or her nutritional needs may not be fully met if certain criteria are not followed. By following a meat-free diet, some essential nutrients may be left out.
The vegetarians’ diet needs proper meal planning, if the person undertaking this diet is to avoid certain nutritional deficiencies. Elderly people, athletes, and children are particularly at risk of nutritional deficiencies, since one or more of the five food groups are no longer a part of the diet.
The following are the main nutrients the vegetarian needs to take into consideration:
• Protein – Protein is required for the body to grow and function. When you eliminate meat from your plate, it needs to be replaced with plant sources. Look to soybeans, tofu, tempeh, beans, quinoa, nuts, and flaxseeds, just to name a few. It is a common misconception that protein only comes from meat, as there are many plant sources.
• Calcium – Calcium is a mineral that is needed to build bones. This is especially important for children, athletes, women (to prevent osteoporosis) and the elderly. The traditional sources of calcium from dairy need to be replaced with vegan sources that include, soybeans, tofu, soymilk, turnip greens, fortified cereals, and beans, just to name a few.
• Iron – Iron is an essential mineral used to transport oxygen in the blood to all parts of the body. Lack of this nutrient can cause anemia. As above, animal sources are the best sources of iron. Foods like oysters, clams, liver from different animals are at the top of the list of iron-rich foods. Plant foods contain iron, and include but are not limited to quinoa, beans, potatoes, soybeans, spirulina, and tofu. Phytic acids found in grains and legumes can get in the way of absorption of iron. This can be minimized by soaking the legumes and eating unleavened grains like crackers. Cooking also helps with the removal of the acid.
• B12 – B12 is a vitamin that is unusable by humans in plant sources. Lack of this vitamin causes nerve problems, depression, tiredness, weakness, to name a few. Best sources include clam, liver and mackerel. Vegans are particularly at risk for lack of this vitamin and so supplements are a good idea.
• Vitamin D – Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, which enhances the absorption of iron, calcium, and zinc. Lack of this vitamin is associated with high blood pressure, osteoporosis, dental cavities, possible erectile dysfunction and problems with blood cholesterol. Sunlight is actually the best source of vitamin D. Vegans can theirs from fortified non-dairy milks, and cereals.
• Zinc – This mineral is necessary for creating DNA, building proteins and for a healthy immune system. Deficiencies include impotence, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. The best sources of this vitamin are from animal sources and include oysters, beef, and lamb.
Vegetarian diets become unhealthy when these nutrient deficiency risks are not addressed and proper food replacements for meat sources are not made. Vegetarians can avoid missing out on the aforementioned nutrients by supplementation and incorporating vegetable products that provide them.
Eating Too Much Junk Food
Some believe that eating a plant based diet can somehow make up for other poor food choices. Unfortunately, this is not the case. Vegans and vegetarians cannon eat unlimited amounts of French fries, chips, cookies and cake. They should not overindulge in junk food, ice cream, or soda. Candy, cookies, donuts, Doritos, cupcakes, and muffins are vegan, but loaded with empty calories, fat and sugar that can quickly negate all the health benefits that vegetarian eating has to offer.
Just because it’s vegan, doesn’t mean it’s healthy. It is still important to read labels, eat whole food, make smart food choices and not overindulge in junk or that vegetarian diet can quickly turn unhealthy.
Vegetarians and vegans who follow a sound nutritionally balanced diet that is rich in fruits, vegetables, grains, beans and nuts are making smart choices, but yes, exercise is still important. A plant diet cannot compensate for all the health benefits offered by regular physical activity.
Combining vegetarian diet with regular physical activity will make you into a health powerhouse and soar your energy levels!
Nancy Addison’s book How to Be a Healthy Vegetarian, second edition, is the definitive guide that you cannot be without. The content is easy to understand and a great resource for anyone looking to live a healthier lifestyle and learn more about vegetarianism, veganism, raw foods, living foods, healthy lifestyle, wellness, organic foods, disease prevention, diets, preventative care, and much more. More info.